collective narcissism in Facebook
By expanding the social network sites (SNSs) and its affordances, people are introduced to new functions and possibilities, among which photos are particularly salient. Thousands of photos are uploaded every day and the focus of the social network sites’ members has been shifted from textual content to visual content, a reverse chronicle of human evolution, that is, we are thinking more in pictures. This paper will address the use of photo galleries as an instrument of self presentation and means of visual autobiography online in SNSs (Papacharissi, 2010).
Preserving memories
Altamira’s magnificent prehistoric paintings indicate that the early man had the tendency to express and preserve the biographical memories. This significant function of preserving memories was the trigger to invent more complicated devices- a corollary of Camera Obscura – to expedite the process of capturing, preserving and sharing.

Self- Presentation
People are often concerned about their impression they make on others. Based on self- presentation theory (1) person is motivated to make particular impression on the other people but (2) doubt that he or she will be able to make the desired impression successfully (Leary & Kowalski, 1995). The latter causes that people present a highly selective version of themselves. This theory also pointes out that the degree to which people are included versus excluded by others determined, in large part, by how others regard them. For example, incompetent and socially undesirable persons risk exclusion relative to those with desirable social aptitude.

Personal Photography and social network sites
Personal photography refers to images that are part of our life such as birthdays, holidays, weddings, etc which emphasizes the importance of moments in which we share our stories. However, by emerging the digital photography, the recording of these sanctified moments has expanded with more emphasis on every day’s banal (Papacharissi, 2010). Digital cameras make self-portraits easier and facilitate self-documentation. In other words, we consciously and unconsciously record ourselves in order to make a particular impression on others. That is, a primary act of social formation which makes a starting point for stimulating interaction. In this regard, (1) photos are used as starting point for conversation, (2) a way to maintain social interaction and status, (3) a mean of identifying of others, and (4) an indication of one’s beauty (Schwarz, 2010). On the other hand, this self-documentation plays a central role of recognizing one’s self-identity. Photos (“meta Photographs” (Papacharissi, 2010) ) are constantly photoshoped, recorded from different angles or partially surfaced. This doesn’t mean that one tries to hide his/her identity, but indicates that he or she is in constant self-exploration. Furthermore, this manipulation of body can be converted to economic capital, that is, this conversion between different bodily features (corporeal capital) and cultural capital (the knowledge needed to produce a photo) are convertible to social capital (Schwarz, 2010).
In conclusion, these behaviors reflect a collectively performed narcissism, through which the subject exhibits photographs of self-referential behavior (Papacharissi, 2010). These practices of voluntarily exposure not only serve as self-exploration, but also points toward the validity of individual’s identity performances, without which it would be impossible to attain social bridging and bonding.
Exhibition of personal photographs in social network sites creates valuable public images for implementation of face recognition to promote commercial advertising.
Hand book of Face recognition (Li & Jain, 2005) is the reference book for this study. A face recognition system identifies faces present in images and videos automatically. The recognition of faces is achieved by (1) detection, (2) alignment, (3) feature extraction, and (4) matching. Face detection separates faces from the background, face alignment is aimed at achieving more accurate localization, face extraction is helpful for distinguishing between different persons, and matching is the process of enrolled faces in the database.
Uploading thousands of pictures into the databases of social networking sites everyday, provides raw materials for research ideas among which the realization of face recognition in advertising industry is of great importance. These raw materials not only provide images of an individual from different angles which is essential in recognizing and extracting different faces from each others, but also provide unintentionally a database of individuals who are not actively enrolled in database. This indirect identification can be processed based on group photography and by the use of tagging each photos. On the other hand, the pervasive use of handheld devices – iPhone, iPod, iPad, etc., with Wi-Fi, 3G, and 4G functionality, provides exact tracking of each person in big cities such as New York, where people are walking around and are subject to big screening of advertised products.
Combination of images collected and maintained from social network sites and tracking devices exist in handheld devices, every person would be convertible to a receiver of personalized marketing messages while he/she is passing a big monitor installed at every corners.
As a result, social network sites with a database of billions of images along with other collected personalized data can promote the advertising industry in unprecedented way. It not only helps the advertising industry to have a better understanding of each of us but also provides a selective array of interests each individual might have regarding of his/her background.

Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (1995). The self-presentation model of social phobia. Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment, 94–112.

Li, S. Z., & Jain, A. K. (2005). Handbook of face recognition. Springer Verlag.

Papacharissi, Z. (2010, p.251-273). A Networked Self: Identity, Community, and Culture on Social Network Sites. Taylor & Francis.

Schwarz, O. (2010). On Friendship, Boobs and the Logic of the Catalogue. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 16(2), 163.